Background To evaluate the impact of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) on clinical features in patients with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) and to compare the features of MAS in KFD with those of adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The medical records of febrile patients hospitalised with KFD between November 2005 and April 2017 were reviewed. Patients fulfilling the 2016 classification criteria for MAS were classified as having MAS. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with KFD with and without MAS were evaluated. Poor hospitalisation outcomes were defined as intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality. The treatment outcomes of MAS in KFD, AOSD, and SLE were also compared. Results Among 78 patients hospitalised with KFD, 24 (30.8%) patients had MAS during admission. Patients with KFD and MAS more frequently required glucocorticoid treatment (66.7% vs 40.7%, p = 0.036) and had longer hospital stays than patients with KFD without MAS (12.5 vs 8.5 days, p<0.001). In addition, patients with MAS had worse hospitalisation outcomes than patients without MAS (29.2% vs. 0.0%, p<0.001). Among patients with MAS in KFD, AOSD, and SLE, the number of patients requiring glucocorticoid treatment after 3 months was significantly lower among patients with MAS and KFD (KFD 33.3%, AOSD 88.9%, SLE 100%, p<0.001). Conclusions The presence of MAS in KFD was associated with adverse clinical outcomes including higher steroid usage and worse hospitalisation outcomes. However, compared to those with AOSD and SLE, patients with MAS and KFD were less likely to require long-term glucocorticoid treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant of the Korean Health Technology R&D Project through the Korean Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant number: HI18C0919).
© 2019 Ahn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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