In this study, a novel inoculation method to mitigate the inhibition of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is proposed. Acid algae hydrolysate containing 1.5 g 5-HMF/L and 15 g hexose/L hexose was fed to a continuous fixed bed reactor (C-FBR) partially packed with hybrid-immobilized beads. The inoculation method enabled a high rate of H 2 production, due to the reduction of 5-HMF inhibition and enhanced biofilm formation. Maximum hydrogen production was achieved at a hydraulic retention time of 6 h with a hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 20.0 ± 3.3 L H 2 /L-d and a hydrogen yield (HY) of 2.3 ± 0.4 mol H 2 /mol hexose added . Butyrate and acetate were the major soluble metabolic products released during fermentation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Clostridium butyricum comprised 94.3% of the total bacteria, which was attributed to the high rate of biohydrogen production.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology