Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) with and without presurgical orthodontics by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 24 patients (mean age, 22.1 years) with skeletal Class III malocclusion who underwent bimaxillary surgery with IVRO. The patients were divided into the preorthodontic orthognathic surgery (POGS) group (n = 12) and conventional surgery (CS) group (n = 12). CBCT images acquired preoperatively, 1 month after surgery, and 1 year after surgery were analyzed to compare the intergroup differences in postoperative threedimensional movements of the maxillary and mandibular landmarks and the changes in lateral cephalometric variables. Results: Baseline demographics (sex and age) were similar between the two groups (6 men and 6 women in each group). During the postsurgical period, the POGS group showed more significant upward movement of the mandible (p < 0.05) than did the CS group. Neither group showed significant transverse movement of any of the skeletal landmarks. Moreover, none of the dental and skeletal variables showed significant intergroup differences 1 year after surgery. Conclusions: Compared with CS, POGS with IVRO resulted in significantly different postsurgical skeletal movement in the mandible. Although both groups showed similar skeletal and dental outcomes at 1 year after surgery, upward movement of the mandible during the postsurgical period should be considered to ensure a more reliable outcome after POGS.
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