Graphene-based materials, including graphene oxide (GO), reduced-graphene oxide (rGO), and non-oxidative graphene (nOG) were evaluated for catalytic ozonation in water solutions. Among the graphene-based materials evaluated for catalytic ozonation, it was confirmed that rGO was unsuitable to apply to the ozone (O3)/graphene-based materials catalytic process because the high electron mobility of rGO prevented the transformation of O3 into hydroxyl radicals ([rad]OH). On the other hand, GO, which had sufficient oxygenated functional groups on the surface, decomposed and generated the most amount of O3 and [rad]OH, respectively. Although O3/nOG process produced a lower amount of [rad]OH than O3/GO process, nOG was more effective than GO for the transformation yields of O3 into [rad]OH. Furthermore, nOG could generate [rad]OH not only in the bulk phase, but also on the surface of nOG during catalytic ozonation. However, iopromide (IPM) was effectively removed during O3/GO process due to the more [rad]OH generated in the bulk phase than O3/nOG process.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Advanced Technology Center R&D Program funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy of Korea ( 10048475 ), by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy , the Technology Innovation Program (No. 10044410 , commercialization of flexible touch panels based on 900 × 1600 mm 2 large, less than 1-nm thick graphene film synthesis technique, and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) ( 2013R1A2A2A05006466 ).
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