The origin of the lowered electron injection barrier height of C60 Cu was investigated by in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The onset of the highest occupied molecular orbital level was shifted by 0.2 eV toward high binding energy upon the heat treatment, resulting in the improved injection characteristics of the device. Moreover, an unexpected gap state has been observed at 1.2 eV below the Fermi level. The XPS core-level spectra revealed that the chemical reaction between C60 and Cu at the interface induced the gap state after heat treatment. The gap state pinned the Fermi level close to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60. We obtained the complete energy level diagram of C60 Cu before and after the heat treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by Seoul Science Fellowship of the Seoul Metropolitan Government, BK21 project of the Korea Research Foundation (KRF), and the KOSEF through National Core Research Center for Nanomedical Technology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)