We investigated changes in the crystal structure of GeTe during its phase transition. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, four possible crystal structures were identified: R3m, P1, Cm, and Fm3m. Among these, P1 and Cm were examined here for the first time. By calculating the internal energy of the crystal volume change, we verified that P1, R3m, and Cm can coexist in crystalline GeTe. The X-ray diffraction spectra of annealed and laser-irradiated GeTe films revealed coexisting P1 or R3m and Cm. In addition, we confirmed that Cm transforms into P1 or R3m after laser irradiation. The presence of these new structures was revealed in the crystal Raman spectra. Many of the Raman peaks in the crystalized GeTe could be explained by the coexistence of various structures. By calculating the band gaps of these structures, we also found that a structural transformation induces a change in the crystal resistance, owing to differences in the band gaps of individual structures. The generation of new crystal structures suggests a facile phase change and instability during the structural transformation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, funded by the Korean government (No. 2015R1A2A1A01007560).
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