Evolution of the surface state in Bi2Se2Te thin films during phase transition

Hyejin Choi, Tae Hyeon Kim, Jimin Chae, Juheyuck Baeck, Chul Sik Kee, Kwang Ho Jeong, Hong Sik Jeong, Chul Kang, Mann Ho Cho

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Abstract

Topological insulators, a new quantum state of matter, have created exciting opportunities for studies in topological quantum physics and for exploring spintronics applications due to their gapless helical metallic surface states. In this study, thin films composed of alternate layers of Bi and Se (Te) ({Bi(3 Å)Te(9 Å)}n/{Bi(3 Å)Se(9 Å)}n) were fabricated by controlling the layer thickness within the atomic scale using thermal evaporation techniques. The high-purity growth of uniform Bi2Se2Te1 thin films has not yet been achieved using a thermal evaporation method. However, as a result of a self-ordering process during annealing, an as-grown amorphous film with p-type polarity could transform into single crystalline Bi2Se2Te1 with n-type polarity. Using THz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), we concluded that the conductivity is dominated by the Drude contribution, suggesting the presence of a quantum well state and surface states. Moreover we demonstrated that the emission of terahertz waves from the (001) surface of the single crystalline Bi2Se2Te1 thin film would be possible under the excitation of 790 nm femtosecond optical pulses, indicating the presence of a Dirac-fermion, a photo-Dember effect at the surface state and the transient current within the surface depletion region. The results reported herein provide useful information regarding a valuable deposition method that can be useful in studies of the evolution of surface state electrons in topological insulators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14924-14936
Number of pages13
JournalNanoscale
Volume7
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Sep 28

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

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    Choi, H., Kim, T. H., Chae, J., Baeck, J., Kee, C. S., Jeong, K. H., Jeong, H. S., Kang, C., & Cho, M. H. (2015). Evolution of the surface state in Bi2Se2Te thin films during phase transition. Nanoscale, 7(36), 14924-14936. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5nr04354a