In the pair annihilation of ionic vacancies with opposite charges, a drastic excess heat production up to 410 kJ mol−1 in average at 10 T (i. e., 1.5 times larger than the heat production by the combustion of H2, 285.8 kJ mol−1) was observed, which was then attributed to the emission of the solvation energy stored in 0.61 nm radius vacancies with two unit charges. Under a high magnetic field, using Lorentz force, we made ionic vacancies created in copper cathodic and anodic reactions collide with each other, and measured the reaction heat by their annihilation. Ionic vacancy is initially created as a byproduct in electrode reaction in keeping the conservation of linear momentum and electric charge during electron transfer. The unstable polarized particle is stabilized by solvation, and the solvation energy is stored in the free space of the order of 0.1 nm surrounded by oppositely charged ionic cloud. The collision of the ionic vacancies was carried out by circulation-type magnetohydrodynamic electrode (c-type MHDE) composed of a rectangular channel with a pair of copper electrodes and a narrow electrolysis cell.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan and the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University for financial support and access to superconducting magnets.
© 2019, The Author(s).
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