Daily physical exercise is an essential part of life and is required for remaining healthy; it enhances therapeutic efficacy in the elderly and prevents age-related diseases associated with lipid profile alterations, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dementia. To more efficiently analyse the lipid profiles and unveil the effect of exercise in aged mice, we optimized our study by examining the effects of using ionization modifiers in the mobile phase and in-source fragmentation of lysophospholipids on the simultaneous analysis of fatty acids (FAs) including hydroxyl fatty acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and glycerolipids using nanoflow ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. We applied the optimization to investigate the lipidomic plasma alterations in young (7 weeks old) and aged (84 weeks old) mice (C57BL/6) subjected to treadmill exercise. Of the 390 identified lipid species, 159 were quantified to investigate ageing-related lipid species responsive to physical exercise. In particular, circulating lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels showed a significant decrease, and lysophosphatidic acid showed a simultaneous increase with ageing. The saturated FA (16:0 and 18:0) increased with ageing while the unsaturated FA 22:6 decreased. Dihydroxy fatty acid (18:1_2OH) showed an exercise-induced recovery against ageing. It is notable that the levels of five triacylglycerol species significantly increased by as much as threefold with ageing, but their levels largely recovered to those observed in the young mice after exercise. These findings can help understand the influence of ageing on lipid perturbation and the role of physical exercise on lipidomic recovery in response to ageing-associated loss of physical status. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by Korea Mouse Phenotyping project (NRF-2019M3A9D5A01102794) and in part by grants (NRF-2018R1A2A1A05019794 and NRF-2020R1C1C1006414) of the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning through the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry