Exploration of the factor structure of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory using bootstrapping estimation

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Exploratory factor analyses of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI), which serves to measure individual cognitive styles, generally indicate three factors: sufficiency of originality, efficiency, and rule/group conformity. In contrast, a 2005 study by Im and Hu using confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, dividing the sufficiency of originality dimension into two subdimensions, idea generation and preference for change. This study extends Im and Hu's (2005) study of a derived version of the KAI by providing additional evidence of the four-factor structure. Specifically, the authors test the robustness of the parameter estimates to the violation of normality assumptions in the sample using bootstrap methods. A bias-corrected confidence interval bootstrapping procedure conducted among a sample of 356 participants-members of the Arkansas Household Research Panel, with middle SES and average age of 55.6 yr. (SD = 13.9)-showed that the four-factor model with two subdimensions of sufficiency of originality fits the data significantly better than the three-factor model in non-normality conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-444
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Reports
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Apr 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

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