Exploring competing perspectives on how to design open innovation program for high school stem education: A case study

Sam Youl Lee, Minseo Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Open innovation (OI) has become an essential business model for big tech companies and innovation ecosystems. However, most STEM high schools in the United States do not have appro-priate OI programs for students. This paper explores how various perspectives on open innovation as an emerging trend in the entrepreneurial ecosystem can link with STEM education programs. We use the Q methodology technique with interviews from students and managers of STEM education at C Academy and academic members from a field of open innovation. Twenty-three participants responded to the 35 Q statements derived from preliminary findings of critical issues on a relationship between open innovation and STEM education. Five key perspectives compete, each with a unique view on why STEM education matters and how to renovate the current STEM program for an open innovation-based curriculum and club activities inside and outside high schools. Empirical findings from Q method analysis combined with Promax rotation illustrate five views: (1) civic vir-tue-driven open innovation, (2) open innovation with imagination from arts and culture, (3) daily life-based open innovation project, (4) critics on conventional STEM education, and (5) community service-driven open innovation. A common area that all five perspectives support is that the gov-ernment should expand and strengthen support in the design and operation of open innovation education programs in STEM high schools.

Original languageEnglish
Article number322
JournalEducation Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Public Administration
  • Computer Science Applications


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