We report a microwave-assisted solvothermal process for the preparation of magnetite (Fe3O4, ca. 5 nm)-anchored reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It has been examined as a prospective conversion-type negative electrode for multiple energy storage applications, such as Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and Li-ion capacitors (LICs). A LiFePO4/Fe3O4-rGO cell is constructed and capable of delivering an energy density of approximately 139 Wh kg−1 with a notable cyclability (ca. 76 %) after 500 cycles. Prior to the fabrication of a LIB, the Fe3O4-rGO is electrochemically pretreated to eliminate the irreversible capacity loss. In addition to the LIB, a high-energy LIC is also fabricated by using the pre-lithiated Fe3O4-rGO composite as the anode and commercial activated carbon as the cathode. This LIC registered a maximum energy density of approximately 114 Wh kg−1 with good cyclability. For both the LIB and LIC, the mass loading between the electrodes was adjusted based on the performance with metallic Li. The improved electrochemical performance of Fe3O4-rGO over existing materials is a promising development in the quest for novel, fast, low cost, and efficient energy storage systems without compromising the eco-friendliness.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
V.A. and S.M. are thankful for financial support from the Ministry of Education (MOE TIER 2 funding MOE2015-T2-1-046), Singapore. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT& Future Planning (2015R1A2A2A03006633). This research was respectfully supported by Energy Technology Development Project (ETDP) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (20172410100150).
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