Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries

Hualiang Lin, Yanfei Guo, Paul Kowal, Collins O. Airhihenbuwa, Qian Di, Yang Zheng, Xing Zhao, Michael G. Vaughn, Steven Howard, Mario Schootman, Aaron Salinas-Rodriguez, Alfred E. Yawson, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza, Richard B. Biritwum, Stephen P. Rule, Nadia Minicuci, Nirmala Naidoo, Somnath Chatterji, Zhengmin QianWenjun Ma, Fan Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression. Method: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41 785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% Cl 1.01-1.17) per 10μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model. Conclusions: Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-162
Number of pages6
JournalBritish Journal of Psychiatry
Volume211
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep

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Air Pollution
Smoking
Depression
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Particulate Matter
Mental Health
Cohort Studies
Joints
Regression Analysis
Prospective Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Lin, Hualiang ; Guo, Yanfei ; Kowal, Paul ; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O. ; Di, Qian ; Zheng, Yang ; Zhao, Xing ; Vaughn, Michael G. ; Howard, Steven ; Schootman, Mario ; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron ; Yawson, Alfred E. ; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam ; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad ; Biritwum, Richard B. ; Rule, Stephen P. ; Minicuci, Nadia ; Naidoo, Nirmala ; Chatterji, Somnath ; Qian, Zhengmin ; Ma, Wenjun ; Wu, Fan. / Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries. In: British Journal of Psychiatry. 2017 ; Vol. 211, No. 3. pp. 157-162.
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title = "Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries",
abstract = "Background: Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression. Method: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41 785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95{\%} Cl 1.01-1.17) per 10μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=1.10, 95{\%} CI 1.02-1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model. Conclusions: Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.",
author = "Hualiang Lin and Yanfei Guo and Paul Kowal and Airhihenbuwa, {Collins O.} and Qian Di and Yang Zheng and Xing Zhao and Vaughn, {Michael G.} and Steven Howard and Mario Schootman and Aaron Salinas-Rodriguez and Yawson, {Alfred E.} and Perianayagam Arokiasamy and Manrique-Espinoza, {Betty Soledad} and Biritwum, {Richard B.} and Rule, {Stephen P.} and Nadia Minicuci and Nirmala Naidoo and Somnath Chatterji and Zhengmin Qian and Wenjun Ma and Fan Wu",
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Lin, H, Guo, Y, Kowal, P, Airhihenbuwa, CO, Di, Q, Zheng, Y, Zhao, X, Vaughn, MG, Howard, S, Schootman, M, Salinas-Rodriguez, A, Yawson, AE, Arokiasamy, P, Manrique-Espinoza, BS, Biritwum, RB, Rule, SP, Minicuci, N, Naidoo, N, Chatterji, S, Qian, Z, Ma, W & Wu, F 2017, 'Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries', British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 157-162. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.117.202325

Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries. / Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yanfei; Kowal, Paul; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Di, Qian; Zheng, Yang; Zhao, Xing; Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Steven; Schootman, Mario; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron; Yawson, Alfred E.; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad; Biritwum, Richard B.; Rule, Stephen P.; Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Qian, Zhengmin; Ma, Wenjun; Wu, Fan.

In: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 211, No. 3, 09.2017, p. 157-162.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoking and their combined effects on depression in six low- and middle-income countries

AU - Lin, Hualiang

AU - Guo, Yanfei

AU - Kowal, Paul

AU - Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

AU - Di, Qian

AU - Zheng, Yang

AU - Zhao, Xing

AU - Vaughn, Michael G.

AU - Howard, Steven

AU - Schootman, Mario

AU - Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron

AU - Yawson, Alfred E.

AU - Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

AU - Manrique-Espinoza, Betty Soledad

AU - Biritwum, Richard B.

AU - Rule, Stephen P.

AU - Minicuci, Nadia

AU - Naidoo, Nirmala

AU - Chatterji, Somnath

AU - Qian, Zhengmin

AU - Ma, Wenjun

AU - Wu, Fan

PY - 2017/9

Y1 - 2017/9

N2 - Background: Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression. Method: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41 785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% Cl 1.01-1.17) per 10μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model. Conclusions: Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.

AB - Background: Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression. Method: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41 785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% Cl 1.01-1.17) per 10μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model. Conclusions: Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.

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U2 - 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.202325

DO - 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.202325

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JO - British Journal of Psychiatry

JF - British Journal of Psychiatry

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