Objectives: An analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and the surrounding urothelium to help identify what lies behind the mechanism of multifocal tumor development has not yet been performed. We sought to find a new DEG related to the development of bladder TCC. Methods: Thirty-nine bladder TCC tissues paired with normal-appearing urothelium tissues obtained from the same patient were used as subjects. Initially, we compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles between normal-appearing urothelium and TCC tissue of 1 patient by using annealing control primer (ACP)-based GeneFishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and selective amplification of family members (SAFM) PCR to identify potential DEGs. To validate the results of the ACP data, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on those of all 39 patients. Results: Among the several DEGs discovered in the ACP data, 1 DEG was chosen as the candidate for the RT-PCR, that is present or markedly upregulated in normal-appearing urothelial tissue compared with TCC tissue. Gene sequence searching revealed that this DEG is chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI). Downregulation of COUP-TFI mRNA expression in TCC tissue compared to normal-appearing urothelium tissue of the same patient, irrespective of tumor stage and grade, was confirmed by RT-PCR in 39 patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the loss of COUP-TFI may play a role in the transition from normal epithelium to TCC. Further characterization of the COUP-TFI gene is expected to give us informations about bladder TCC tumorigenesis.
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