Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple β-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits

Sang Eun Han, Young Sam Seo, Daeil Kim, Soon Kee Sung, Woo Taek Kim

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10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fruit ripening involves complex biochemical and physiological changes. Ethylene is an essential hormone for the ripening of climacteric fruits. In the process of ethylene biosynthesis, cyanide (HCN), an extremely toxic compound, is produced as a co-product. Thus, most cyanide produced during fruit ripening should be detoxified rapidly by fruit cells. In higher plants, the key enzyme involved in the detoxification of HCN is β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS). As little is known about the molecular function of β-CAS genes in climacteric fruits, we identified two homologous genes, MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding Fuji apple β-CAS homologs. The structural features of the predicted polypeptides as well as an in vitro enzyme activity assay with bacterially expressed recombinant proteins indicated that MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 may indeed function as β-CAS isozymes in apple fruits. RNA gel-blot studies revealed that both MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 mRNAs were coordinately induced during the ripening process of apple fruits in an expression pattern comparable with that of ACC oxidase and ethylene production. The MdCAS genes were also activated effectively by exogenous ethylene treatment and mechanical wounding. Thus, it seems like that, in ripening apple fruits, expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 genes is intimately correlated with a climacteric ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity. In addition, β-CAS enzyme activity was also enhanced as the fruit ripened, although this increase was not as dramatic as the mRNA induction pattern. Overall, these results suggest that MdCAS may play a role in cyanide detoxification in ripening apple fruits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1321-1331
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Cell Reports
Volume26
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Aug 1

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cyanides
Malus domestica
ripening
apples
fruits
ethylene production
aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase
ethylene
genes
enzyme activity
coproducts
toxic substances
recombinant proteins
isozymes
polypeptides
hormones
gels
RNA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

@article{994cbb9e1bd1436e9366c2cd7c237e0d,
title = "Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple β-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits",
abstract = "Fruit ripening involves complex biochemical and physiological changes. Ethylene is an essential hormone for the ripening of climacteric fruits. In the process of ethylene biosynthesis, cyanide (HCN), an extremely toxic compound, is produced as a co-product. Thus, most cyanide produced during fruit ripening should be detoxified rapidly by fruit cells. In higher plants, the key enzyme involved in the detoxification of HCN is β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS). As little is known about the molecular function of β-CAS genes in climacteric fruits, we identified two homologous genes, MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding Fuji apple β-CAS homologs. The structural features of the predicted polypeptides as well as an in vitro enzyme activity assay with bacterially expressed recombinant proteins indicated that MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 may indeed function as β-CAS isozymes in apple fruits. RNA gel-blot studies revealed that both MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 mRNAs were coordinately induced during the ripening process of apple fruits in an expression pattern comparable with that of ACC oxidase and ethylene production. The MdCAS genes were also activated effectively by exogenous ethylene treatment and mechanical wounding. Thus, it seems like that, in ripening apple fruits, expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 genes is intimately correlated with a climacteric ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity. In addition, β-CAS enzyme activity was also enhanced as the fruit ripened, although this increase was not as dramatic as the mRNA induction pattern. Overall, these results suggest that MdCAS may play a role in cyanide detoxification in ripening apple fruits.",
author = "Han, {Sang Eun} and Seo, {Young Sam} and Daeil Kim and Sung, {Soon Kee} and Kim, {Woo Taek}",
year = "2007",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s00299-007-0316-9",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "1321--1331",
journal = "Plant Cell Reports",
issn = "0721-7714",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple β-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits

AU - Han, Sang Eun

AU - Seo, Young Sam

AU - Kim, Daeil

AU - Sung, Soon Kee

AU - Kim, Woo Taek

PY - 2007/8/1

Y1 - 2007/8/1

N2 - Fruit ripening involves complex biochemical and physiological changes. Ethylene is an essential hormone for the ripening of climacteric fruits. In the process of ethylene biosynthesis, cyanide (HCN), an extremely toxic compound, is produced as a co-product. Thus, most cyanide produced during fruit ripening should be detoxified rapidly by fruit cells. In higher plants, the key enzyme involved in the detoxification of HCN is β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS). As little is known about the molecular function of β-CAS genes in climacteric fruits, we identified two homologous genes, MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding Fuji apple β-CAS homologs. The structural features of the predicted polypeptides as well as an in vitro enzyme activity assay with bacterially expressed recombinant proteins indicated that MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 may indeed function as β-CAS isozymes in apple fruits. RNA gel-blot studies revealed that both MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 mRNAs were coordinately induced during the ripening process of apple fruits in an expression pattern comparable with that of ACC oxidase and ethylene production. The MdCAS genes were also activated effectively by exogenous ethylene treatment and mechanical wounding. Thus, it seems like that, in ripening apple fruits, expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 genes is intimately correlated with a climacteric ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity. In addition, β-CAS enzyme activity was also enhanced as the fruit ripened, although this increase was not as dramatic as the mRNA induction pattern. Overall, these results suggest that MdCAS may play a role in cyanide detoxification in ripening apple fruits.

AB - Fruit ripening involves complex biochemical and physiological changes. Ethylene is an essential hormone for the ripening of climacteric fruits. In the process of ethylene biosynthesis, cyanide (HCN), an extremely toxic compound, is produced as a co-product. Thus, most cyanide produced during fruit ripening should be detoxified rapidly by fruit cells. In higher plants, the key enzyme involved in the detoxification of HCN is β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS). As little is known about the molecular function of β-CAS genes in climacteric fruits, we identified two homologous genes, MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding Fuji apple β-CAS homologs. The structural features of the predicted polypeptides as well as an in vitro enzyme activity assay with bacterially expressed recombinant proteins indicated that MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 may indeed function as β-CAS isozymes in apple fruits. RNA gel-blot studies revealed that both MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 mRNAs were coordinately induced during the ripening process of apple fruits in an expression pattern comparable with that of ACC oxidase and ethylene production. The MdCAS genes were also activated effectively by exogenous ethylene treatment and mechanical wounding. Thus, it seems like that, in ripening apple fruits, expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2 genes is intimately correlated with a climacteric ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity. In addition, β-CAS enzyme activity was also enhanced as the fruit ripened, although this increase was not as dramatic as the mRNA induction pattern. Overall, these results suggest that MdCAS may play a role in cyanide detoxification in ripening apple fruits.

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DO - 10.1007/s00299-007-0316-9

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 1321

EP - 1331

JO - Plant Cell Reports

JF - Plant Cell Reports

SN - 0721-7714

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ER -