For future exascale computing systems, ultra-high-density memories would be required that consume low power to process massive data. Of the various memory devices, 3D-stacked DRAMs using TSVs are a perfect solution for this purposes. In addition to providing high capacity, these provide functional flexibility to the computing system by attaching a logic die in each 3D-stacked DRAM chip. However, the high capacity 3D-stacked DRAMs suffer from a significant loss of refresh power, which is solely required to maintain data. Although various schemes have been proposed to mitigate this issue, they cannot be adopted by commercial products due to compatibility issues. To tackle this issue, we propose EXTREME, which effectively reduces the refresh power of 3D-Stacked DRAMs. In order to retain the compatibility with OS, a simple page table manager is implemented at the logic die of 3D-stacked DRAM devices, which pins the page table to a specific memory space. The experiment results demonstrate that this reduces the refresh power at idle time by up to 98 percent with 16 KB of SRAM (static RAM) and 64 KB of DRAM register overhead for a 2 GB 3D-stacked DRAM device.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (2016R1A2B4011799), by the ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP. [2016(R7177-16-0233), Developement of Application Program Optimization Tools for High Performance Computing Systems], and by Samsung Electronics Company, Ltd., Hwasung, Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Theoretical Computer Science
- Hardware and Architecture
- Computational Theory and Mathematics