A micro/nanomotor is a micro- or nanoscale device that converts energy into movement and force. Easy and cost-effective approaches should be developed toward parallel mass production of micro/nanomotors to fulfill the vision that millions of nanomotors are able to cooperate and communicate with each other to accomplish tasks. Because the geometry and morphology of micro/nanomotors are critical to their movement, the uniformity of the structures and reproducibility of the methods are of great significance. Second, the discovery of new materials and propulsion methods that are compatible with living systems is a challenge facing the field. Although diverse micro/nanomotors powered by external energy sources provide alternatives, they are still primitive in the performance of complicated tasks. Energy-conversion efficiency can be promoted to increase both the mobility and towing ability of micro/nanomotors for improved transport of heavier and sophisticated cargoes.
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