Facile, nonhydrothermal, mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres for dye-sensitized solar cells

Chang Soo Lee, Jung Yup Lim, Won Seok Chi, Jong Hak Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report a facile, non-hydrothermal (or non-solvothermal) and mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres (MTSs) suitable for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesis is a facile bulk calcination in which the inexpensive polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) is used as a structure-directing agent; the EC concentration is controlled to induce spherical morphology. The size of MTSs can be adjusted by tuning the solute-solvent interactions; for example, the addition of the poor solvent toluene to the solute resulted in the formation of smaller MTSs. A DSSC fabricated using a polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquid and iodine (I2) and using a layer of MTSs on a nanocrystalline (NC) TiO2 layer exhibited an efficiency of up to 6.3%, which is much higher than those of DSSCs with an NC layer only (5.0%) or with a commercial scattering layer (CSL) on an NC layer (5.7%). A solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) using a single component solid polymer, namely poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl) methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII), also exhibited an excellent efficiency of up to 6.4%. The improved efficiency was due to the role of the MTSs in improving surface area and light harvesting properties, as demonstrated by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, UV-visible light absorption, reflectance spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-147
Number of pages9
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Volume173
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 May 25

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Polymers
Cellulose
Ionic Liquids
Toluene
Iodides
Iodine
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Ionic liquids
Calcination
Light absorption
Electrolytes
Isotherms
Desorption
Photons
Tuning
Dye-sensitized solar cells
Spectroscopy
Scattering
Adsorption
ethyl cellulose

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Facile, nonhydrothermal, mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres for dye-sensitized solar cells",
abstract = "We report a facile, non-hydrothermal (or non-solvothermal) and mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres (MTSs) suitable for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesis is a facile bulk calcination in which the inexpensive polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) is used as a structure-directing agent; the EC concentration is controlled to induce spherical morphology. The size of MTSs can be adjusted by tuning the solute-solvent interactions; for example, the addition of the poor solvent toluene to the solute resulted in the formation of smaller MTSs. A DSSC fabricated using a polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquid and iodine (I2) and using a layer of MTSs on a nanocrystalline (NC) TiO2 layer exhibited an efficiency of up to 6.3{\%}, which is much higher than those of DSSCs with an NC layer only (5.0{\%}) or with a commercial scattering layer (CSL) on an NC layer (5.7{\%}). A solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) using a single component solid polymer, namely poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl) methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII), also exhibited an excellent efficiency of up to 6.4{\%}. The improved efficiency was due to the role of the MTSs in improving surface area and light harvesting properties, as demonstrated by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, UV-visible light absorption, reflectance spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses.",
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Facile, nonhydrothermal, mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres for dye-sensitized solar cells. / Lee, Chang Soo; Lim, Jung Yup; Chi, Won Seok; Kim, Jong Hak.

In: Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 173, 25.05.2015, p. 139-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Facile, nonhydrothermal, mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres for dye-sensitized solar cells

AU - Lee, Chang Soo

AU - Lim, Jung Yup

AU - Chi, Won Seok

AU - Kim, Jong Hak

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N2 - We report a facile, non-hydrothermal (or non-solvothermal) and mass-producible synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres (MTSs) suitable for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesis is a facile bulk calcination in which the inexpensive polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) is used as a structure-directing agent; the EC concentration is controlled to induce spherical morphology. The size of MTSs can be adjusted by tuning the solute-solvent interactions; for example, the addition of the poor solvent toluene to the solute resulted in the formation of smaller MTSs. A DSSC fabricated using a polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquid and iodine (I2) and using a layer of MTSs on a nanocrystalline (NC) TiO2 layer exhibited an efficiency of up to 6.3%, which is much higher than those of DSSCs with an NC layer only (5.0%) or with a commercial scattering layer (CSL) on an NC layer (5.7%). A solid-state DSSC (ssDSSC) using a single component solid polymer, namely poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl) methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII), also exhibited an excellent efficiency of up to 6.4%. The improved efficiency was due to the role of the MTSs in improving surface area and light harvesting properties, as demonstrated by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, UV-visible light absorption, reflectance spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses.

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