Purposes: We evaluated patient or tumor factors associated with the preoperative restaging accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining T and N stages as well as circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement after chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with rectal cancer that were treated with preoperative CRT (50.4 Gy) followed by radical resection were included. Post-CRT MRI was performed approximately 4 weeks after preoperative CRT. Results: The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 6 cm, 48 (62%) of which were anterior and 29 (38%) posterior. The median tumor diameter was 3 cm. A stage-by-stage comparison showed that correct staging occurred in 62%, 43%, and 86% of patients for T staging, N staging, and CRM prediction, respectively. Shorter distance to the anal verge (<5 cm), smaller tumor diameter (<1 cm), and anterior tumor location were associated with incorrect T staging. There were no significant variables in terms of N staging accuracy. Shorter tumor distance and anterior tumor location were associated with incorrect CRM prediction. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that specific tumor factors such as small, distal, or anterior rectal tumors are closely associated with the accuracy of MRI after preoperative CRT.
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