Contemporary face recognition system is often based on either 2D (texture) or 3D (texture + shape) face modality. An alternative modality that utilizes range (depth) facial images, namely 2.5D face recognition emerges. In this paper, we propose a 2.5D face descriptor that based on the Regional Covariance Matrix (RCM), a powerful means of feature fusion technique and a novel classifier dubbed Random Maxout Extreme Learning Machine (RMELM). The RCM of interest is constructed based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) filters responses of facial texture and/or range image, wherein the PCA filters are learned from a two-layer PCA network. The RMELM is an ELM variant where the activation function is based on the locally linear maxout function, in place of typical global non-linear functions in ELM. Since the RCM is a special case of symmetric positive definite matrix that resides on the Tensor manifold; a gap exists in between RCM and RMELM, which is a vector-based classifier. To bridge the gap, we flatten the manifold by transforming the RCM to a feature vector via a matrix logarithm operator. Experimental results from two public 3D face databases, FRGC v2.0 database and Gavab database, validated our proposed method is promising in 2.5D face recognition.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Malaysia [grant numbers MMUE/140021 ] and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NO. 2016R1A2B4011656 ).
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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