Recent work has suggested a microbial dysbiosis association between the lung and gut in respiratory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that gut microbiome modulation attenuated emphysema development. To modulate the gut microbiome, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and diet modification were adopted in mice exposed to smoking and poly I:C for the emphysema model. We analyzed the severity of emphysema by the mean linear intercept (MLI) and apoptosis by the fluorescent TUNEL assay. Microbiome analysis was also performed in feces and fecal extracellular vesicles (EVs). The MLI was significantly increased with smoking exposure. FMT or a high-fiber diet (HFD) attenuated the increase. Weight loss, combined with smoking exposure, was not noted in mice with FMT. HFD significantly decreased macrophages and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, IL-6 and IFN-γ were decreased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum. The TUNEL score was significantly lower in mice with FMT or HFD, suggesting decreased cell apoptosis. In the microbiome analysis, Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae, which are alleged to metabolize fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), increased at the family level with FMT and HFD. FMT and HFD attenuated emphysema development via local and systemic inhibition of inflammation and changes in gut microbiota composition, which could provide a new paradigm in COPD treatment.
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© 2020, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry