Objectives: The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO) is increasing the frequency of poor clinical outcomes, prolonging hospitalizations, and raising healthcare costs. This study evaluated the eradication efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and identified microbial and functional biomarkers of MDRO decolonization. Methods: Fecal solution obtained from healthy unrelated donors was infused in the participants’ guts which had been colonized with carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriacea (CPE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), or both CPE and VRE. Fecal samples from recipients were collected and microbiome changes before and after FMT were assessed. Results: Twenty-four (68.6%) out of 35 patients were decolonized within one year of receiving FMT. Multivariate analysis showed that FMT (FMT: hazard ratio (HR) = 5.343, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.877-15.212, p = 0.002) and MDRO types (CPE: HR = 11.146, 95% CI = 2.420-51.340, p = 0.002; CPE/VRE: HR = 2.948, 95% CI = 1.200-7.246, p = 0.018; VRE served as the reference) were significant independent factors associated with time to decolonization. Microbiota analysis showed higher richness and biodiversity before FMT resulted in VRE decolonization. The species Clostridium ramosum and the genuses Anaerostipes and Eisenbergiella could serve as taxonomic biomarkers and K02017 could serve as a functional biomarker for VRE clearance. Conclusion: FMT is an effective way to decolonize MDRO and its effectiveness may be predicted by microbiome analysis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Severance Hospital Research fund for Clinical excellence (SHRC), the Research Program funded by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019-ER5408-00), research grants for discovering major clinical and epidemiological indicators for people with HIV (Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, 2019-ER5101-00), and a grant from the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI14C1324).
© 2020 The British Infection Association
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases