The ability to permeate selectively the cell membrane and introduce therapeutic agents is a key goal in cell biology. Optical transfection is a powerful methodology but requires exact focusing due to the required two-photon power density. The authors use a Bessel beam that obviates the need to locate precisely the cell membrane, permitting two-photon excitation along a line leading to cell transfection. Assuming a minimum efficiency of 20%, the Bessel beam offers transfection at axial distances 20 times greater than that of its Gaussian equivalent. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate cell transfection beyond obstacles due to the self-healing nature of the Bessel beam.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank R. F. Marchington and P. Fischer for useful discussions and experimental assistance. The authors also thank the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council for funding. Two of the authors (F. G.-M. and K.D.) contributed equally to this work.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)