Photoporation is a rapidly expanding technique for the introduction of macromolecules into single cells. However, there remains no study into the true efficiency of this procedure. Here, we present a detailed analysis of transfection efficiency and cell viability for femtosecond optical transfection using a titanium sapphire laser at 800 nm. Photoporation of 4000 Chinese Hamster ovary cells was performed, representing the largest optical transfection study reported to date. We have investigated a range of laser fluences at the cell membrane and, at 1.2 μJ/cm2, have found an average transfection efficiency of 50 ± 10%. Contrary to recent literature, in which 100% efficiency is claimed, our measure of efficiency accounts for all irradiated cells, including those lost as a result of laser treatment, thereby providing a true biological measure of the technique.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics