Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet

Yunhye Kim, Sun Yoon, Sun Bok Lee, Hye Won Han, Hayoun Oh, Wu Joo Lee, Seung Min Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50% sucrose (w/w) (CTRL), a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) cholesterol (CHOL), or a CHOL diet where 20% casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY) or fermented soy milk (FSOY). Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG) than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3), HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα), and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2), as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere88231
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 10

Fingerprint

Soy Milk
Lactobacillus plantarum
Fermented milk
soymilk
high fat diet
Nutrition
Lipid Metabolism
lipid metabolism
Fermentation
Rats
Cholesterol
fermentation
cholesterol
Diet
rats
Triglycerides
triacylglycerols
liver
Genes
Liver

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

Cite this

Kim, Yunhye ; Yoon, Sun ; Lee, Sun Bok ; Han, Hye Won ; Oh, Hayoun ; Lee, Wu Joo ; Lee, Seung Min. / Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet. In: PloS one. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 2.
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abstract = "We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50{\%} sucrose (w/w) (CTRL), a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1{\%} (w/w) cholesterol (CHOL), or a CHOL diet where 20{\%} casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY) or fermented soy milk (FSOY). Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG) than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3), HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα), and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2), as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.",
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Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet. / Kim, Yunhye; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Sun Bok; Han, Hye Won; Oh, Hayoun; Lee, Wu Joo; Lee, Seung Min.

In: PloS one, Vol. 9, No. 2, e88231, 10.02.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet

AU - Kim, Yunhye

AU - Yoon, Sun

AU - Lee, Sun Bok

AU - Han, Hye Won

AU - Oh, Hayoun

AU - Lee, Wu Joo

AU - Lee, Seung Min

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