FiFo: Fishbone Forwarding in Massive IoT Networks

Hayoung Seong, Junseon Kim, Won Yong Shin, Howon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Massive Internet of Things (IoT) networks have a wide range of applications, including but not limited to the rapid delivery of emergency and disaster messages. Although various benchmark algorithms have been developed to date for message delivery in such applications, they pose several practical challenges, such as insufficient network coverage and/or highly redundant transmissions to expand the coverage area, resulting in considerable energy consumption for each IoT device. To overcome this problem, we first characterize a new performance metric, forwarding efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of the coverage probability to the average number of transmissions per device, to evaluate the data dissemination performance more appropriately. Then, we propose a novel and effective forwarding method, fishbone forwarding (FiFo), which aims to improve the forwarding efficiency with acceptable computational complexity. Our FiFo method completes two tasks: 1) it clusters devices based on the unweighed pair group method with the arithmetic average and 2) it creates the main axis and subaxes of each cluster using both the expectation-maximization algorithm for the Gaussian mixture model and principal component analysis. We demonstrate the superiority of FiFo by using a real-world data set. Through intensive and comprehensive simulations, we show that the proposed FiFo method outperforms benchmark algorithms in terms of the forwarding efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4339-4352
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) under Grant 2022R1A2C1010602 and Grant 2021R1A2C3004345.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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