GNF-7, a multitargeted kinase inhibitor, served as a dual kinase inhibitor of ACK1 and GCK, which provided a novel therapeutic strategy for overriding AML expressing NRAS mutation. This SAR study with GNF-7 derivatives, designed to target NRAS mutant-driven AML, led to identification of the extremely potent inhibitors, 10d, 10g, and 11i, which possess single-digit nanomolar inhibitory activity against both ACK1 and GCK. These substances strongly suppress proliferation of mutant NRAS expressing AML cells via apoptosis and AKT/mTOR signaling blockade. Compound 11i is superior to GNF-7 in terms of kinase inhibitory activity, cellular activity, and differential cytotoxicity. Moreover, 10k possessing a favorable mouse pharmacokinetic profile prolonged life-span of Ba/F3-NRAS-G12D injected mice and significantly delayed tumor growth of OCI-AML3 xenograft model without causing the prominent level of toxicity found with GNF-7. Taken together, this study provides insight into the design of novel ACK1 and GCK dual inhibitors for overriding NRAS mutant-driven AML.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology Program, a grant (D33400) from the Korea Basic Science Institute, Support for Candidate Development Program (NRF-2016M3A9B5940991) and Pioneer Research Center Program (NRF-2014M3C1A3051476) of the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery