Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the five-year reintervention rate of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic leiomyomas and to identify potential predictive factors of reintervention. Methods: From March 2011 to February 2012, 92 consecutive women (mean age 41.9 years, range 28–55 years) underwent bilateral UAE. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at three-month follow-up. After annual follow-up, a survey on clinical outcome and reintervention incidences was performed at five-year follow-up. Potential predictive factors of reintervention were evaluated. Results: Of the 67 patients, menorrhagia and/or bulk-related symptoms were resolved after UAE in all but one patient (98.5%). At median follow-up of 60 months (range, 5–60 months), reintervention rate was 10.4%, with seven reintervention cases (five myomectomy and two hysterectomy cases). Complete (100%) or near complete (90–99%) infarction rate of the dominant leiomyoma was 96.4% (54 of 56). Independent factors of reintervention on multivariate logistics regression analysis included near complete or partial (<90%) infarction of the dominant leiomyoma (odds ratio [OR] 22.238; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.405–205.620; p = 0.006), as well as the presence of non-dominant viable leiomyomas (OR 12.134; 95% CI 1.213–121.409; p = 0.034). Conclusion: UAE provides excellent and sustained symptom improvement of symptomatic leiomyomas with a low reintervention rate at five-year follow-up. In addition to near complete or partial infarction of the dominant leiomyoma on follow-up MRI, the presence of viable non-dominant leiomyomas indicates a higher risk of reintervention.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging