Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the heterogeneous association of consumption of food away from home (FAFH) with individual body mass outcomes including body mass index and waist circumference over the entire conditional distribution of each outcome. Methods: Information on 16 403 adults obtained from nationally representative data on nutrition and behavior in Korea was used. A quantile regression model captured the variability of the association of FAFH with body mass outcomes across the entire conditional distribution of each outcome measure. Heavy FAFH consumption was defined as obtaining ≥1400 kcal from FAFH on a single day. Results: Heavy FAFH consumption, specifically at full-service restaurants, was significantly associated with higher body mass index (+0.46 kg/m2 at the 50th quantile, 0.55 at the 75th, 0.66 at the 90th, and 0.44 at the 95th) and waist circumference (+0.96 cm at the 25th quantile, 1.06 cm at the 50th, 1.35 cm at the 75th, and 0.96 cm at the 90th quantiles) with overall larger associations at higher quantiles. Findings of the study indicate that conventional regression methods may mask important heterogeneity in the association between heavy FAFH consumption and body mass outcomes. Conclusion: Further public health efforts are needed to improve the nutritional quality of affordable FAFH choices and nutrition education and to establish a healthy food consumption environment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Research support from the Korea National Research Foundation ( NRF-2012007096 ) is gratefully acknowledged. EH conceived and designed the study. THK, EH, and EKL analyzed and interpreted data. THK drafted the manuscript, and EH and EKL revised it. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics