The upcoming ubiquitous electronics era, which will find widespread popularity of flexible/wearable electronics, self-powered devices, and the Internet of Things (IoT), stimulates us to develop a new concept of advanced power sources beyond currently available battery technologies. Among several approaches to reach this goal, printed power sources with various form factors and flexibility have recently garnered considerable attention as a promising system. The form factor-free, printed power sources, driven by their design diversity, shape/performance compatibility with electronics, and scalable/low-cost processability, enable monolithic/seamless integration with complex/unconventional-shaped electronic devices, in comparison to conventional rigid/bulky counterparts. Here, we review the current status and challenges of the form factor-free, printed power sources, with a focus on their materials development. Various printing techniques and their process parameters exploited for the printed power sources are briefly described. Subsequently, ink materials and chemistry of major cell components are discussed. Based on the understanding of the printing techniques and materials, applications of the printed power sources are overviewed to highlight their exceptional shape aesthetics and electrochemical characteristics in the integrated electronics. Finally, we propose development directions and outlook of the form factor-free, printed power sources as a device-customized energy storage system, along with prospects of their future applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program ( 2017M1A2A2087812 and 2018R1A2A1A05019733 ), Wearable Platform Materials Technology Center ( 2016R1A5A1009926 ) through the National Research Foundation of Korea ( NRF ) grant by the Korean Government ( MSIT ), and Industry Technology Development Program ( 10080540 ) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy ( MOTIE , Korea). This work was also supported by the Korea Forest Research Institute (FP 0400-2016-01) and Batteries R&D of LG Chem.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology