The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of LiMn 2O4 electrodes during room temperature charge-discharge cycling was studied using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fluorine (F) K-edge. LiMn2O4 electrodes without any binder were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition to eliminate the signal originating from the PVDF binder in the F K-edge X-ray absorption spectra. The F K-edge absorption spectra show that the SEI layer forms at a very early stage of cycling. SEI growth takes place during discharge. In addition, LiFformation is accelerated if the discharge step follows a charge step. The F K-edge absorption spectra suggest that the major component of the SEI is LiF.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments The study done at KIST was supported by the Global Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) (Grant No: 2010-00351). The study done at BNL was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. The study done at Yonsei University was supported by the National Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) (Grant No: 2007-0055835). The study done at SKKU was supported by a grant from the fundamental R&D program for Technology of World Premier Materials and the Fundamental Materials & Components technology developing program by the Korean Government (MKE). Some supporting study was done at beamlines 7B1 (XAS KIST) and 10B (KIST-PAL) at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) in Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Chemistry