Four-Bits-Per-Cell Operation in an HfO2-Based Resistive Switching Device

Gun Hwan Kim, Hyunsu Ju, Min Kyu Yang, Dong Kyu Lee, Ji Woon Choi, Jae Hyuck Jang, Sang Gil Lee, Ik Su Cha, Bo Keun Park, Jeong Hwan Han, Taek Mo Chung, Kyung Min Kim, Cheol Seong Hwang, Young Kuk Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The quadruple-level cell technology is demonstrated in an Au/Al2O3/HfO2/TiN resistance switching memory device using the industry-standard incremental step pulse programming (ISPP) and error checking/correction (ECC) methods. With the highly optimistic properties of the tested device, such as self-compliance and gradual set-switching behaviors, the device shows 6σ reliability up to 16 states with a state current gap value of 400 nA for the total allowable programmed current range from 2 to 11 µA. It is demonstrated that the conventional ISPP/ECC can be applied to such resistance switching memory, which may greatly contribute to the commercialization of the device, especially competitively with NAND flash. A relatively minor improvement in the material and circuitry may enable even a five-bits-per-cell technology, which can hardly be imagined in NAND flash, whose state-of-the-art multiple-cell technology is only at three-level (eight states) to this day.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1701781
Issue number40
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct 25

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
G.H.K. and H.J. contributed equally to this work. The financial support obtained from the Development of Organometallics and Device Fabrication for IT-ET Convergence Project through the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT) of the Republic of Korea (SI1703-02) is acknowledged. C.S.H. acknowledges the support from the Global Research Laboratory Program (2012K1A1A2040157) of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). H.J. appreciates the financial support from the KIST Institution Program (Program 2E27160).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials


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