Fundamental thermokinetic study of a sustainable lithium-ion battery pyrometallurgical recycling process

Oh sung Kwon, Il Sohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


With increased global consumption of Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a sustainable recycling process is necessary to reduce wastes and retrieve highly-valued elements. But to achieve an optimized sustainable recycling process, a fundamental understanding of the thermokinetic reactions during pyrometallurgical LIB recycling is essential. In this work, the thermodynamics and kinetics of high-temperature reactions for LIBs during pyrometallurgical recycling are studied using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas mass spectrometer. Cylindrical composite pellets comprised of cathode and anode active materials were heated from room temperature (RT) to 1500 °C at a constant heating rate of 20 °C/min. By comparing the measurements of the mass loss and simultaneous gas evolution, the anticipated theoretical thermodynamic reactions are confirmed and determined, which is fundamental to the development of a sustainable pyrometallurgical process to recover valuable metals in LIBs. Isothermal reductions from 850 to 1000 °C indicated reactions to be temperature sensitive and mass transfer to be comparatively fast. Using various kinetics models, the uniform internal reduction mechanism was found to be dominant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104809
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper was supported by Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology grant, funded by the Korea Government ( MOTIE ) ( P 0002019 ), as part of the Competency Development Program for Industry Specialists and the third Stage of Brain Korea 21 Plus Project in 2020.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Economics and Econometrics


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