With increased global consumption of Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a sustainable recycling process is necessary to reduce wastes and retrieve highly-valued elements. But to achieve an optimized sustainable recycling process, a fundamental understanding of the thermokinetic reactions during pyrometallurgical LIB recycling is essential. In this work, the thermodynamics and kinetics of high-temperature reactions for LIBs during pyrometallurgical recycling are studied using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas mass spectrometer. Cylindrical composite pellets comprised of cathode and anode active materials were heated from room temperature (RT) to 1500 °C at a constant heating rate of 20 °C/min. By comparing the measurements of the mass loss and simultaneous gas evolution, the anticipated theoretical thermodynamic reactions are confirmed and determined, which is fundamental to the development of a sustainable pyrometallurgical process to recover valuable metals in LIBs. Isothermal reductions from 850 to 1000 °C indicated reactions to be temperature sensitive and mass transfer to be comparatively fast. Using various kinetics models, the uniform internal reduction mechanism was found to be dominant.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Economics and Econometrics