Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation

B. K. Shin, H. Tokuno, Y. Tsunesada, T. Abu-Zayyad, R. Aida, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, E. J. Cho, W. R. Cho, H. Fujii, T. FujiiT. Fukuda, M. Fukushima, W. Hanlon, K. Hayashi, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Hiyama, K. Honda, T. Iguchi, D. Ikeda, K. Ikuta, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, D. Ivanov, S. Iwamoto, C. C.H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, T. Kanbe, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. Kitamoto, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kondo, K. Kuramoto, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, S. I. Lim, S. Machida, K. Martens, J. Martineau, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuura, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, I. Myers, M. Minamino, K. Miyata, Y. Murano, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, T. Nakamura, S. W. Nam, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, D. Oku, T. Okuda, A. Oshima, S. Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. C. Rodriguez, S. Y. Roh, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, N. Sakurai, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, J. I. Shin, T. Shirahama, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, T. J. Sonley, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. Stroman, S. Suzuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Takeda, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Tsuyuguchi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, H. Ukai, G. Vasiloff, Y. Wada, T. Wong, M. Wood, Y. Yamakawa, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, X. Zhou, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The stability of the gain of the photomultiplier (PMT) camera for the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Telescope Array experiment was monitored using an 241Am loaded scintillator pulsers (YAP) and a diffused xenon flasher (TXF) for a selected set of 35 PMT-readout channels. From the monitoring of YAP pulses over four years of FD operation, we found slow monotonic drifts of PMT gains at a rate of -1.7∼+1.7%/year. An average of the PMT gains over the 35 channels stayed nearly constant with a rate of change measured at -0.01±0.31(stat)±0.21(sys)%/year. No systematic decrease of the PMT gain caused by the night sky background was observed. Monitoring by the TXF also tracked the PMT gain drift of the YAP at 0.88±0.14(stat)%/year.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-103
Number of pages8
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume768
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 21

Fingerprint

Photomultipliers
Telescopes
Cameras
cameras
telescopes
Monitoring
night sky
Fluorescence
fluorescence
Detectors
detectors
xenon
scintillation counters
Xenon
readout
Phosphors
pulses
Experiments

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Shin, B. K. ; Tokuno, H. ; Tsunesada, Y. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Aida, R. ; Allen, M. ; Anderson, R. ; Azuma, R. ; Barcikowski, E. ; Belz, J. W. ; Bergman, D. R. ; Blake, S. A. ; Cady, R. ; Cheon, B. G. ; Chiba, J. ; Chikawa, M. ; Cho, E. J. ; Cho, W. R. ; Fujii, H. ; Fujii, T. ; Fukuda, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Hanlon, W. ; Hayashi, K. ; Hayashi, Y. ; Hayashida, N. ; Hibino, K. ; Hiyama, K. ; Honda, K. ; Iguchi, T. ; Ikeda, D. ; Ikuta, K. ; Inoue, N. ; Ishii, T. ; Ishimori, R. ; Ivanov, D. ; Iwamoto, S. ; Jui, C. C.H. ; Kadota, K. ; Kakimoto, F. ; Kalashev, O. ; Kanbe, T. ; Kasahara, K. ; Kawai, H. ; Kawakami, S. ; Kawana, S. ; Kido, E. ; Kim, H. B. ; Kim, H. K. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kitamoto, K. ; Kitamura, S. ; Kitamura, Y. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Kondo, Y. ; Kuramoto, K. ; Kuzmin, V. ; Kwon, Y. J. ; Lim, S. I. ; Machida, S. ; Martens, K. ; Martineau, J. ; Matsuda, T. ; Matsuura, T. ; Matsuyama, T. ; Matthews, J. N. ; Myers, I. ; Minamino, M. ; Miyata, K. ; Murano, Y. ; Nagasawa, K. ; Nagataki, S. ; Nakamura, T. ; Nam, S. W. ; Nonaka, T. ; Ogio, S. ; Ohnishi, M. ; Ohoka, H. ; Oki, K. ; Oku, D. ; Okuda, T. ; Oshima, A. ; Ozawa, S. ; Park, I. H. ; Pshirkov, M. S. ; Rodriguez, D. C. ; Roh, S. Y. ; Rubtsov, G. ; Ryu, D. ; Sagawa, H. ; Sakurai, N. ; Sampson, A. L. ; Scott, L. M. ; Shah, P. D. ; Shibata, F. ; Shibata, T. ; Shimodaira, H. ; Shin, J. I. ; Shirahama, T. ; Smith, J. D. ; Sokolsky, P. ; Sonley, T. J. ; Springer, R. W. ; Stokes, B. T. ; Stratton, S. R. ; Stroman, T. ; Suzuki, S. ; Takahashi, Y. ; Takeda, M. ; Taketa, A. ; Takita, M. ; Tameda, Y. ; Tanaka, H. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tanaka, M. ; Thomas, S. B. ; Thomson, G. B. ; Tinyakov, P. ; Tkachev, I. ; Tomida, T. ; Troitsky, S. ; Tsutsumi, K. ; Tsuyuguchi, Y. ; Uchihori, Y. ; Udo, S. ; Ukai, H. ; Vasiloff, G. ; Wada, Y. ; Wong, T. ; Wood, M. ; Yamakawa, Y. ; Yamane, R. ; Yamaoka, H. ; Yamazaki, K. ; Yang, J. ; Yoneda, Y. ; Yoshida, S. ; Yoshii, H. ; Zhou, X. ; Zollinger, R. ; Zundel, Z. / Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2014 ; Vol. 768. pp. 96-103.
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title = "Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation",
abstract = "The stability of the gain of the photomultiplier (PMT) camera for the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Telescope Array experiment was monitored using an 241Am loaded scintillator pulsers (YAP) and a diffused xenon flasher (TXF) for a selected set of 35 PMT-readout channels. From the monitoring of YAP pulses over four years of FD operation, we found slow monotonic drifts of PMT gains at a rate of -1.7∼+1.7{\%}/year. An average of the PMT gains over the 35 channels stayed nearly constant with a rate of change measured at -0.01±0.31(stat)±0.21(sys){\%}/year. No systematic decrease of the PMT gain caused by the night sky background was observed. Monitoring by the TXF also tracked the PMT gain drift of the YAP at 0.88±0.14(stat){\%}/year.",
author = "Shin, {B. K.} and H. Tokuno and Y. Tsunesada and T. Abu-Zayyad and R. Aida and M. Allen and R. Anderson and R. Azuma and E. Barcikowski and Belz, {J. W.} and Bergman, {D. R.} and Blake, {S. A.} and R. Cady and Cheon, {B. G.} and J. Chiba and M. Chikawa and Cho, {E. J.} and Cho, {W. R.} and H. Fujii and T. Fujii and T. Fukuda and M. Fukushima and W. Hanlon and K. Hayashi and Y. Hayashi and N. Hayashida and K. Hibino and K. Hiyama and K. Honda and T. Iguchi and D. Ikeda and K. Ikuta and N. Inoue and T. Ishii and R. Ishimori and D. Ivanov and S. Iwamoto and Jui, {C. C.H.} and K. Kadota and F. Kakimoto and O. Kalashev and T. Kanbe and K. Kasahara and H. Kawai and S. Kawakami and S. Kawana and E. Kido and Kim, {H. B.} and Kim, {H. K.} and Kim, {J. H.} and Kim, {J. H.} and K. Kitamoto and S. Kitamura and Y. Kitamura and K. Kobayashi and Y. Kobayashi and Y. Kondo and K. Kuramoto and V. Kuzmin and Kwon, {Y. J.} and Lim, {S. I.} and S. Machida and K. Martens and J. Martineau and T. Matsuda and T. Matsuura and T. Matsuyama and Matthews, {J. N.} and I. Myers and M. Minamino and K. Miyata and Y. Murano and K. Nagasawa and S. Nagataki and T. Nakamura and Nam, {S. W.} and T. Nonaka and S. Ogio and M. Ohnishi and H. Ohoka and K. Oki and D. Oku and T. Okuda and A. Oshima and S. Ozawa and Park, {I. H.} and Pshirkov, {M. S.} and Rodriguez, {D. C.} and Roh, {S. Y.} and G. Rubtsov and D. Ryu and H. Sagawa and N. Sakurai and Sampson, {A. L.} and Scott, {L. M.} and Shah, {P. D.} and F. Shibata and T. Shibata and H. Shimodaira and Shin, {J. I.} and T. Shirahama and Smith, {J. D.} and P. Sokolsky and Sonley, {T. J.} and Springer, {R. W.} and Stokes, {B. T.} and Stratton, {S. R.} and T. Stroman and S. Suzuki and Y. Takahashi and M. Takeda and A. Taketa and M. Takita and Y. Tameda and H. Tanaka and K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka and Thomas, {S. B.} and Thomson, {G. B.} and P. Tinyakov and I. Tkachev and T. Tomida and S. Troitsky and K. Tsutsumi and Y. Tsuyuguchi and Y. Uchihori and S. Udo and H. Ukai and G. Vasiloff and Y. Wada and T. Wong and M. Wood and Y. Yamakawa and R. Yamane and H. Yamaoka and K. Yamazaki and J. Yang and Y. Yoneda and S. Yoshida and H. Yoshii and X. Zhou and R. Zollinger and Z. Zundel",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.059",
language = "English",
volume = "768",
pages = "96--103",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment",
issn = "0168-9002",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Shin, BK, Tokuno, H, Tsunesada, Y, Abu-Zayyad, T, Aida, R, Allen, M, Anderson, R, Azuma, R, Barcikowski, E, Belz, JW, Bergman, DR, Blake, SA, Cady, R, Cheon, BG, Chiba, J, Chikawa, M, Cho, EJ, Cho, WR, Fujii, H, Fujii, T, Fukuda, T, Fukushima, M, Hanlon, W, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, Y, Hayashida, N, Hibino, K, Hiyama, K, Honda, K, Iguchi, T, Ikeda, D, Ikuta, K, Inoue, N, Ishii, T, Ishimori, R, Ivanov, D, Iwamoto, S, Jui, CCH, Kadota, K, Kakimoto, F, Kalashev, O, Kanbe, T, Kasahara, K, Kawai, H, Kawakami, S, Kawana, S, Kido, E, Kim, HB, Kim, HK, Kim, JH, Kim, JH, Kitamoto, K, Kitamura, S, Kitamura, Y, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, Y, Kondo, Y, Kuramoto, K, Kuzmin, V, Kwon, YJ, Lim, SI, Machida, S, Martens, K, Martineau, J, Matsuda, T, Matsuura, T, Matsuyama, T, Matthews, JN, Myers, I, Minamino, M, Miyata, K, Murano, Y, Nagasawa, K, Nagataki, S, Nakamura, T, Nam, SW, Nonaka, T, Ogio, S, Ohnishi, M, Ohoka, H, Oki, K, Oku, D, Okuda, T, Oshima, A, Ozawa, S, Park, IH, Pshirkov, MS, Rodriguez, DC, Roh, SY, Rubtsov, G, Ryu, D, Sagawa, H, Sakurai, N, Sampson, AL, Scott, LM, Shah, PD, Shibata, F, Shibata, T, Shimodaira, H, Shin, JI, Shirahama, T, Smith, JD, Sokolsky, P, Sonley, TJ, Springer, RW, Stokes, BT, Stratton, SR, Stroman, T, Suzuki, S, Takahashi, Y, Takeda, M, Taketa, A, Takita, M, Tameda, Y, Tanaka, H, Tanaka, K, Tanaka, M, Thomas, SB, Thomson, GB, Tinyakov, P, Tkachev, I, Tomida, T, Troitsky, S, Tsutsumi, K, Tsuyuguchi, Y, Uchihori, Y, Udo, S, Ukai, H, Vasiloff, G, Wada, Y, Wong, T, Wood, M, Yamakawa, Y, Yamane, R, Yamaoka, H, Yamazaki, K, Yang, J, Yoneda, Y, Yoshida, S, Yoshii, H, Zhou, X, Zollinger, R & Zundel, Z 2014, 'Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation', Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 768, pp. 96-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.059

Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation. / Shin, B. K.; Tokuno, H.; Tsunesada, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E. J.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Hiyama, K.; Honda, K.; Iguchi, T.; Ikeda, D.; Ikuta, K.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ivanov, D.; Iwamoto, S.; Jui, C. C.H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kanbe, T.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Kuramoto, K.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lim, S. I.; Machida, S.; Martens, K.; Martineau, J.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Myers, I.; Minamino, M.; Miyata, K.; Murano, Y.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nam, S. W.; Nonaka, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Oku, D.; Okuda, T.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Roh, S. Y.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, J. I.; Shirahama, T.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Sonley, T. J.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeda, M.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsutsumi, K.; Tsuyuguchi, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Ukai, H.; Vasiloff, G.; Wada, Y.; Wong, T.; Wood, M.; Yamakawa, Y.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhou, X.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 768, 21.12.2014, p. 96-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gain monitoring of telescope array photomultiplier cameras for the first 4 years of operation

AU - Shin, B. K.

AU - Tokuno, H.

AU - Tsunesada, Y.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Aida, R.

AU - Allen, M.

AU - Anderson, R.

AU - Azuma, R.

AU - Barcikowski, E.

AU - Belz, J. W.

AU - Bergman, D. R.

AU - Blake, S. A.

AU - Cady, R.

AU - Cheon, B. G.

AU - Chiba, J.

AU - Chikawa, M.

AU - Cho, E. J.

AU - Cho, W. R.

AU - Fujii, H.

AU - Fujii, T.

AU - Fukuda, T.

AU - Fukushima, M.

AU - Hanlon, W.

AU - Hayashi, K.

AU - Hayashi, Y.

AU - Hayashida, N.

AU - Hibino, K.

AU - Hiyama, K.

AU - Honda, K.

AU - Iguchi, T.

AU - Ikeda, D.

AU - Ikuta, K.

AU - Inoue, N.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Ishimori, R.

AU - Ivanov, D.

AU - Iwamoto, S.

AU - Jui, C. C.H.

AU - Kadota, K.

AU - Kakimoto, F.

AU - Kalashev, O.

AU - Kanbe, T.

AU - Kasahara, K.

AU - Kawai, H.

AU - Kawakami, S.

AU - Kawana, S.

AU - Kido, E.

AU - Kim, H. B.

AU - Kim, H. K.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kim, J. H.

AU - Kitamoto, K.

AU - Kitamura, S.

AU - Kitamura, Y.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, Y.

AU - Kondo, Y.

AU - Kuramoto, K.

AU - Kuzmin, V.

AU - Kwon, Y. J.

AU - Lim, S. I.

AU - Machida, S.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Martineau, J.

AU - Matsuda, T.

AU - Matsuura, T.

AU - Matsuyama, T.

AU - Matthews, J. N.

AU - Myers, I.

AU - Minamino, M.

AU - Miyata, K.

AU - Murano, Y.

AU - Nagasawa, K.

AU - Nagataki, S.

AU - Nakamura, T.

AU - Nam, S. W.

AU - Nonaka, T.

AU - Ogio, S.

AU - Ohnishi, M.

AU - Ohoka, H.

AU - Oki, K.

AU - Oku, D.

AU - Okuda, T.

AU - Oshima, A.

AU - Ozawa, S.

AU - Park, I. H.

AU - Pshirkov, M. S.

AU - Rodriguez, D. C.

AU - Roh, S. Y.

AU - Rubtsov, G.

AU - Ryu, D.

AU - Sagawa, H.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Sampson, A. L.

AU - Scott, L. M.

AU - Shah, P. D.

AU - Shibata, F.

AU - Shibata, T.

AU - Shimodaira, H.

AU - Shin, J. I.

AU - Shirahama, T.

AU - Smith, J. D.

AU - Sokolsky, P.

AU - Sonley, T. J.

AU - Springer, R. W.

AU - Stokes, B. T.

AU - Stratton, S. R.

AU - Stroman, T.

AU - Suzuki, S.

AU - Takahashi, Y.

AU - Takeda, M.

AU - Taketa, A.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Tameda, Y.

AU - Tanaka, H.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Tanaka, M.

AU - Thomas, S. B.

AU - Thomson, G. B.

AU - Tinyakov, P.

AU - Tkachev, I.

AU - Tomida, T.

AU - Troitsky, S.

AU - Tsutsumi, K.

AU - Tsuyuguchi, Y.

AU - Uchihori, Y.

AU - Udo, S.

AU - Ukai, H.

AU - Vasiloff, G.

AU - Wada, Y.

AU - Wong, T.

AU - Wood, M.

AU - Yamakawa, Y.

AU - Yamane, R.

AU - Yamaoka, H.

AU - Yamazaki, K.

AU - Yang, J.

AU - Yoneda, Y.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Yoshii, H.

AU - Zhou, X.

AU - Zollinger, R.

AU - Zundel, Z.

PY - 2014/12/21

Y1 - 2014/12/21

N2 - The stability of the gain of the photomultiplier (PMT) camera for the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Telescope Array experiment was monitored using an 241Am loaded scintillator pulsers (YAP) and a diffused xenon flasher (TXF) for a selected set of 35 PMT-readout channels. From the monitoring of YAP pulses over four years of FD operation, we found slow monotonic drifts of PMT gains at a rate of -1.7∼+1.7%/year. An average of the PMT gains over the 35 channels stayed nearly constant with a rate of change measured at -0.01±0.31(stat)±0.21(sys)%/year. No systematic decrease of the PMT gain caused by the night sky background was observed. Monitoring by the TXF also tracked the PMT gain drift of the YAP at 0.88±0.14(stat)%/year.

AB - The stability of the gain of the photomultiplier (PMT) camera for the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Telescope Array experiment was monitored using an 241Am loaded scintillator pulsers (YAP) and a diffused xenon flasher (TXF) for a selected set of 35 PMT-readout channels. From the monitoring of YAP pulses over four years of FD operation, we found slow monotonic drifts of PMT gains at a rate of -1.7∼+1.7%/year. An average of the PMT gains over the 35 channels stayed nearly constant with a rate of change measured at -0.01±0.31(stat)±0.21(sys)%/year. No systematic decrease of the PMT gain caused by the night sky background was observed. Monitoring by the TXF also tracked the PMT gain drift of the YAP at 0.88±0.14(stat)%/year.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907997555&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907997555&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.059

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.059

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84907997555

VL - 768

SP - 96

EP - 103

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

ER -