Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound) on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk), underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Small and Medium Business Administration (Technological Innovation R and D Program S2178403) for Sang Hyun Moh, Agricultural R and D through Technology Transfer Fee Program114100-1 for Jinhee Yeo, and the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (20150071) and National Research Foundation (2014K1A3A1A19066980 and 2016R1C1B3012748) for Ki Woo Kim and 2015H1A2A1032009 for Dong Joo Yang.
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Chemistry (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry