Bursts of gamma ray showers have been observed in coincidence with downward propagating negative leaders in lightning flashes by the Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD). The TASD is a 700-km2 cosmic ray observatory located in southwestern Utah, USA. In data collected between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations showing the structure and temporal development of three shower-producing flashes were obtained with a 3-D lightning mapping array, and electric field change measurements were obtained for an additional seven flashes, in both cases colocated with the TASD. National Lightning Detection Network information was also used throughout. The showers arrived in a sequence of 2–5 short-duration (≤10 μs) bursts over time intervals of several hundred microseconds and originated at an altitude of ≃3–5 km above ground level during the first 1–2 ms of downward negative leader breakdown at the beginning of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. The shower footprints, associated waveforms and the effect of atmospheric propagation indicate that the showers consist primarily of downward-beamed gamma radiation. This has been supported by GEANT simulation studies, which indicate primary source fluxes of ≃1012–1014 photons for 16° half-angle beams. We conclude that the showers are terrestrial gamma ray flashes, similar to those observed by satellites, but that the ground-based observations are more representative of the temporal source activity and are also more sensitive than satellite observations, which detect only the most powerful terrestrial gamma ray flashes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The lightning mapping array used in this study was developed and operated with the support of NSF grants AGS-1205727 and AGS-1613260. The Telescope Array experiment is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grants-in-Aids for Scientific Research on Specially Promoted Research (15H05693) and for Scientific Research (S) (15H05741), and the Inter-University Research Program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research; by the U.S. National Science Foundation awards PHY-0307098, PHY-0601915, PHY-0649681, PHY-0703893, PHY-0758342, PHY-0848320, PHY-1069280, PHY-1069286, PHY-1404495 and PHY-1404502; by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2015R1A2A1A01006870, 2015R1A2A1A15055344, 2016R1A5A1013277, 2007-0093860, 2016R1A2B4014967, 2017K1A4A3015188); by the Russian Academy of Sciences, RFBR grant 16-02-00962a (INR), IISN project No. 4.4502.13, and Belgian Science Policy under IUAP VII/37 (ULB). The foundations of Ezekiel R. and Edna Wattis Dumke, Willard L. Eccles, and George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles all helped with generous donations. The State of Utah supported the project through its Economic Development Board, and the University of Utah through the Office of the Vice President for Research. The experimental site became available through the cooperation of the Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA), U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the U.S. Air Force. We appreciate the assistance of the State of Utah and Fillmore offices of the BLM in crafting the Plan of Development for the site. We also wish to thank the people and the officials of Millard County, Utah, for their steadfast and warm support. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the technical staffs of our home institutions. An allocation of computer time from the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah is gratefully acknowledged. We thank VAISALA for providing NLDN data under their academic research use policy. Data that support the conclusions presented in the manuscript are provided in the figures of the paper and in the additional tables and figures of the supporting information.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Water Science and Technology
- Soil Science
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Earth-Surface Processes
- Atmospheric Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Space and Planetary Science