The recent emergence of organoid technology has attracted great attention in gastroenterology because the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be recapitulated in vitro using organoids, enabling disease modeling and mechanistic studies. However, to more precisely emulate the GI microenvironment in vivo, several neighboring cell types and types of microbiota need to be integrated into GI organoids. This article reviews the recent progress made in elucidating the crosstalk between GI organoids and components of their microenvironment. We outline the effects of stromal cells (such as fibroblasts, neural cells, immune cells, and vascular cells) on the gastric and intestinal epithelia of organoids. Because of the important roles that microbiota play in the physiology and function of the GI tract, we also highlight interactions between organoids and commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. GI organoid models that contain niche components will provide new insight into gastroenterological pathophysiology and disease mechanisms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants (2015M3A9B4071076 and 2018M3A9H1021382) from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), Republic of Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry