Gaussian processes (GPs) have been exploited for various applications even including online learning. To learn time-varying hyperparameters from an information-limited sparse data stream, we consider the infinite-horizon Gaussian process (IHGP) with a low computational complexity. For example, the IHGP framework could provide efficient GP online learning with a sparse data stream in mobile devices. However, we show that the originally proposed IHGP has difficulty in learning time-varying hyperparameters online from the sparse data stream due to the numerically approximated gradient of the marginal likelihood function. In this paper, we show how to extend the IHGP in order to learn time-varying hyperparameters using a sparse and non-stationary data stream. In particular, our solution approach offers the exact gradient as the solution of a Lyapunov equation. Therefore, our approach achieves better performance with a sparse data stream while still keeping the computational complexity low. Finally, we present the comparison results to demonstrate that our approach outperforms the originally proposed IHGP on practical applications with sparse data streams. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we consider a multi-rate sensor fusion or an interpolation problem where slow vision systems need to be combined with other fast sensory units for feedback control in the field of autonomous driving. In particular, we apply our approach to vehicle lateral position error estimation together with a deep learning model for autonomous driving using non-stationary lateral position error signals in a model-free and data-driven fashion.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received February 24, 2020; accepted June 30, 2020. Date of publication July 21, 2020; date of current version July 31, 2020. This letter was recommended for publication by Associate Editor S. Julier and Editor E. Marchand upon evaluation of the reviewers’ comments. This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2018R1A4A1025986) and in part by the Mid-career Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2018R1A2B6008063). (Corresponding author: Jongeun Choi.) The authors are with the School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, South Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LRA.2020.3010752
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Control and Systems Engineering
- Biomedical Engineering
- Human-Computer Interaction
- Mechanical Engineering
- Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
- Computer Science Applications
- Control and Optimization
- Artificial Intelligence