Aim: Few data are available on the gender-related differences in the prognostic impact of diabetes in people with heart failure. This study was performed to investigate whether there is a gender difference in the association between diabetes and long-term clinical outcomes in people hospitalized for heart failure. Methods: A total of 3162 people hospitalized with heart failure (aged 67.4 ± 14.1 years, 50.4% females) from the data set of the nationwide registry were analysed. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission. Results: People with diabetes (30.5% for males vs. 31.1% for females, P = 0.740) were older and had more unfavourable risk factors and laboratory findings than those without diabetes in both genders. During a median follow-up period of 549 days, there were 1418 cases of composite events (44.8%). In univariable analysis, the coexistence of diabetes was significantly associated with a higher incidence of composite events in both genders (P < 0.05 each for males and females). In multivariable analysis, the prognostic impact of diabetes on the development of composite events remained significant in females even after controlling for potential confounders (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence intervals 1.12–1.84; P = 0.004). However, an independent association between diabetes and composite events was not seen in males in the same multivariable analysis (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In people with heart failure, the impact of diabetes on long-term mortality and heart failure readmission seems to be stronger in females than in males. More careful and intensive management is needed especially in females with heart failure and diabetes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors appreciate the help of Sohee Oh (Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea) for statistical assistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism