Gene × Environment interaction between DRD2 and criminal father is associated with five antisocial phenotypes

Matt Delisi, Kevin M. Beaver, Michael George Vaughn, John Paul Wright

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40 Citations (Scopus)


A range of Gene × Environment interactions is associated with antisocial phenotypes, and the evidence is clear that the etiology of antisocial behavior is strongly heritable and that environmental liabilities are important. However, the precise ways that genetic and environmental pathogens interact to predict antisocial behavior are underspecified. The present study shows that the interaction between a polymorphism in a dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) and a criminal father predicts five antisocial phenotypes among African American females (n = 232) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Genetic risk (as measured by the A1 allele) and a criminal father interacted to predict serious and violent delinquency at Wave 1, serious and violent delinquency at Wave 2, and number of police contacts. The current investigation represents the first study to show Gene × Environment interactions in the prediction of antisocial phenotypes using criminal justice system status as an environmental pathogen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1187-1197
Number of pages11
JournalCriminal Justice and Behavior
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Nov 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Psychology(all)
  • Law

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