Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that bridge innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby leading to immune activation. DCs have been known to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and nucleic acids via their pattern recognition receptors, which trigger signaling of their maturation and effector functions. Furthermore, DCs take up and process antigens as a form of peptide loaded on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and present them to T cells, which are responsible for the adaptive immune response. Conversely, DCs can also play a role in inducing immune suppression under specific circumstances. From this perspective, the role of DCs is related to tolerance rather than immunity. Immunologists refer to these special DCs as tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs). However, the definition of tolDCs is controversial, and there is limited information on their development and characteristics. In this review, we discuss the current concept of tolDCs, cutting-edge methods for generating tolDCs in vitro, and future applications of tolDCs, including clinical use.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases