We present a geometrically nonlinear finite element formulation for analysis of functionally graded 3D beams. The proposed formulation employs the continuum mechanics based beam element with the warping displacement to model complex modes of deformation. The novelty of the developed method is that the warping function can be accurately calculated for any beam with arbitrary cross-sections and material grading patterns. Superb performances of the proposed beam element are demonstrated through several representative examples.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning for convergent research in sport scientification (NRF-2014M3C1B1033983). This work was also supported by the Center for Advanced Meta-Materials (CAMM) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning as Global Frontier Project (CAMM-2014M3A6B3063711).
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Civil and Structural Engineering