Soybean is known to have diverse beneficial effects against human diseases, including obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Germinated soybean embryos are enriched with bioactive phytochemicals and known to inhibit diet-induced obesity in mice, but their effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. Here, we germinated soybean embryos for 24 h, and their ethanolic extract (GSEE, 15 and 45 mg/kg) was administered daily to mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. HFD significantly increased the weight of the body, liver and adipose tissue, as well as serum lipid markers, but soyasaponin Ab-rich GSEE alleviated these changes. Hepatic injury and triglyceride accumulation in HFD-fed mice were attenuated by GSEE via decreased lipid synthesis (SREBP1c) and increased fatty acid oxidation (p-AMPKα, PPARα, PGC1α, and ACOX) and lipid export (MTTP and ApoB). HFD-induced inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CD14, F4/80, iNOS, and COX2) was normalized by GSEE in mice livers. In adipose tissue, GSEE downregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) differentiation and lipogenesis (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS) and induced browning genes (PGC1α, PRDM16, CIDEA, and UCP1), which could also beneficially affect the liver via lowering adipose tissue-related circulating lipid levels. Thus, our results suggest that GSEE can prevent HFD-induced NAFLD via inhibition of hepatic inflammation and restoration of lipid metabolisms in both liver and adipose tissue.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a 2-Year Research Grant of Pusan National University.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Drug Discovery