Global burden of gout in 1990–2019: A systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study 2019

Yeon Jae Jeong, Seoyeon Park, Dong Keon Yon, Seung Won Lee, Kalthoum Tizaoui, Ai Koyanagi, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev, Elena Dragioti, Joaquim Radua, Andrew Stickley, Hans Oh, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aims: Although gout is one of the most common rheumatic diseases, world data are lacking because most studies have focused on industrialized countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the global burden of gout and its associations with the year of diagnosis, age, geographical region, sociodemographic status and various further risk factors. Methods: Retrospective data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) were used, initially collected between 1990 and 2019. Raw numbers and age-standardized rates (per 100,000 persons) of prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs) of gout were extracted from GBD 2019 for 204 countries and territories and stratified by sex, age, year, sociodemographic index and geographic region. Correlations between gout and other chronic diseases were identified, and the burden attributable to high body mass index (BMI) and kidney dysfunction was described. Results: The total number of patients and gout age-standardized prevalence rate increased between 1990 and 2019. Gout was most prevalent in Australasia and high-income North America, and a higher sociodemographic index (SDI) was associated with higher age-standardized prevalence, incidence and YLDs. High BMI and kidney dysfunction were risk factors for gout, while gout was correlated with other kidney diseases. Conclusions: The global prevalence of gout, as well as incidence, and YLDs increased worldwide from 1990 to 2019 and had a significant association with sex, age, geographic region, SDI and risk factors. Understanding the complex interplay of environmental, sociodemographic and geographic risk factors is essential in mitigating the ever-rising disease burden of gout.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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