What happens to traditional civic notions of nation, national identity, and constitutional rights when national curricula incorporate ideas of global citizenship, other national identities, diversity, and human rights? Using a longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we address this issue by analyzing the nature of changes in South Korean civic education textbooks. Findings indicate that national citizenship themes remain core elements but that their emphases have weakened, while global citizenship themes have dramatically increased, especially in the 1990s and 2000s. In addition, the content and presentation of textbooks have become increasingly learner-centered, encouraging students to become self-directed, empowered individuals in a global society. Interviews with academics, practitioners, and policy makers indicate that both global and local factors contributed to these developments.
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