Global Cooling Hiatus Driven by an AMOC Overshoot in a Carbon Dioxide Removal Scenario

Soon Il An, Jongsoo Shin, Sang Wook Yeh, Seok Woo Son, Jong Seong Kug, Seung Ki Min, Hyo Jeong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The reversibility of global mean surface temperature was examined by a transient CO2 reversibility experiment using an Earth system model. The results showed that after CO2 ramp-up toward CO2 quadrupling and ramp-down returned to the present-day level, the global mean surface temperature kept decreasing but stopped to change for ∼40 years in the early net-zero CO2 emission period. This period, referred to a cooling hiatus, resulted from a compensation between Southern Hemisphere cooling and Northern Hemisphere warming. The Northern Hemisphere warming was centered over the North Atlantic. This localized warming was caused by an excessive heat advection by a delayed and surpassed Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to CO2 forcing. During the progression of CO2 change, the meridional salinity gradient between subtropic and subpolar regions was enhanced, and the oceanic stratification in subpolar North Atlantic was reduced due to accumulated heat and reduced vertical salt import in the deeper ocean. As AMOC started to recover, consequently, the enhanced salt advection feedback and the relaxed buoyant force resulted in AMOC overshoot.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2021EF002165
JournalEarth's Future
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF‐2018R1A5A1024958). The CESM simulation was carried out on the supercomputer supported by the National Center for Meteorological Supercomputer of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), the National Supercomputing center with supercomputing resources, associated technical support (KSC‐2019‐CHA‐0005), and the Korea Research Environment Open NETwork (KREONET).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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