Introduction: Dementia is currently one of the leading causes of mortality globally, and mortality due to dementia will likely increase in the future along with corresponding increases in population growth and population aging. However, large inconsistencies in coding practices in vital registration systems over time and between countries complicate the estimation of global dementia mortality. Methods: We meta-analyzed the excess risk of death in those with dementia and multiplied these estimates by the proportion of dementia deaths occurring in those with severe, end-stage disease to calculate the total number of deaths that could be attributed to dementia. Results: We estimated that there were 1.62 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 0.41-4.21) deaths globally due to dementia in 2019. More dementia deaths occurred in women (1.06 million [0.27-2.71]) than men (0.56 million [0.14-1.51]), largely but not entirely due to the higher life expectancy in women (age-standardized female-tomale ratio 1.19 [1.10-1.26]). Due to population aging, there was a large increase in allage mortality rates from dementia between 1990 and 2019 (100.1% [89.1-117.5]). In 2019, deaths due to dementia ranked seventh globally in all ages and fourth among individuals 70 and older compared to deaths from other diseases estimated in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Discussion: Mortality due to dementia represents a substantial global burden, and is expected to continue to grow into the future as an older, aging population expands globally.
|Journal||Alzheimer's and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seat-
G. J. Hankey reports personal fees from AC Immune, Lausanne, Switzerland for serving on Data Safety Monitoring Committees of ACI-24-701, ACI-24-1801, ACI-35-1201, and ACI-35-1802 trials of immune therapies (vaccines targeted to beta amyloid and tau) for Alzheimer’s disease. M. Kivimäki reports grants from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC S011676), the US National Institutes on Aging (NIA R01AG056477) and NordForsk, outside the submitted work. S. Lorkowski reports personal fees from Akcea Therapeutics, Amedes, AMGEN, Berlin-Chemie, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Daiichi Sankyo, Lilly, MSD Sharp & Dohme, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi-Aventis, Synlab, Unilever, and Upfield, and non-financial support from Preventicus, all outside the submitted work. M. Saylan reports being an employee of Bayer AG. J. A. Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Trio Health, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care Options, Clearview Healthcare Partners, Putnam Associates, Focus Forward, Navigant Consulting, Spherix, Practice Point Communications, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology, and Simply Speaking; owning stock options in Amarin, Viking, Moderna, and Vaxart pharmaceuticals; non-financial support from FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee, Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee and from the Steering committee of OMERACT, an International organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm’s length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies; and being the Editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis, all outside the submitted work. C. E. I. Szoeke reports grants from NHMRC 1062133, Alzheimer’s Association, and NIA320312, during the conduct of the study. A. Wimo reports personal fees from WHO and non-financial support from ADI, during the conduct of the study; grants from MSD and personal fees from Biogen, outside the submitted work. C. Wu reports grants from Ministry of Science and Technology in China, Suzhou Municipal Science
R. Akinyemi is supported as a FLAIR Research Fellow by the UK Royal Society and the African Academy of Science (Grants FLR/R1/191813 and FCG/R1/201034) U01HG010273 and from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA as part of the H3Africa Consortium. F. Carvalho and E. Fernandes acknowledge support from UID/MULTI/04378/2019 and UID/QUI/50006/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES, through national funds. L. F. S. Castro-de-Araujo is funded by The Wellcome Trust (Grant 202912/Z/16Z) via a research associate scholarship at Center of Data and Knowledge Integration for Health (CIDACS), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz). A. Douiri acknowledges financial support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research and from the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South London at King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the King’s College London, NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. B. B. Duncan was supported in part by IATS/FAPERGS (465518/2014-1). A. P. Kengne is supported by the South African Medical Research Council. Y. J. Kim was funded by a grant from the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia (Grant number: XMUMRF/2020-C6/ITCM/0004). M. Kivimäki reports grants from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC S011676), the US National Institutes on Ageing (NIA R01AG056477) and NordForsk. W. Kukull acknowledges support from U01 AG016976. M Kumar acknowledges support from FIC/NIMH K43 TW010716-03. I. Landires is member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), which is supported by the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENACYT), Panamá. S. Lorkowski acknowledges institutional support from the Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD) Halle-Jena-Leipzig (Germany; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; grant agreement number 01EA1808A). S. Mondello acknowledges support by grant number GR-2013-02354960 from the Italian Ministry of Health. M. R. Phillips is supported in part by Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases-National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC. No. 81761128031). P. S. Sachdev acknowledges funding support from NHMRC Australia (grant no 1093086). J. P. Silva acknowledges support from grant number UIDB/04378/2020 from the Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit (UCIBIO), supported through Portuguese national funds via FCT/MCTES. C. E. I. Szoeke is supported by the National Medical Health and Research Council, the Alzheimer’s Association, and The University of Melbourne. R. Tabarés-Seisdedos was supported in part by grant PI17/00719 from ISCIII-FEDER. C. Wu acknowledges support from the Ministry of Science and Technology (2020YFC2005600) and Suzhou Municipal Science and Technology Bureau (SS2019069).
© 2021 The Authors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health