We aimed to demonstrate the differences in the expression of glucose metabolism–related proteins according to the thyroid cancer subtypes and investigate the implications of these differences. A total of 566 thyroid cancer patients, including 342 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 112 cases of follicular carcinoma, 70 cases of medullary carcinoma, 23 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma, 19 cases of anaplastic carcinoma, and 152 cases of follicular adenoma, were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical staining for glucose transporter 1, hexokinase II, carbonic anhydrase IX, and monocarbonylate transporter 4 was performed, and the relationship between immunoreactivity and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. Glucose transporter 1 and tumoral monocarbonylate transporter 4 expression levels were shown to be the highest in anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma showed the highest carbonic anhydrase IX and lowest hexokinase II levels compared with other subtypes. Stromal expression of monocarbonylate transporter 4 was observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma samples. Conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of glucose transporter 1, and tumoral and stromal monocarbonylate transporter 4, than the follicular variant, which showed a higher expression of carbonic anhydrase IX. Papillary thyroid carcinoma samples with BRAF V600E mutation were shown to have higher glucose transporter 1, hexokinase II, carbonic anhydrase IX, and tumoral monocarbonylate transporter 4 expression levels. Univariate analysis showed that papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with glucose transporter 1 positivity had shorter overall survival, patients with medullary carcinoma and hexokinase II positivity were shown to have a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival, and tumoral monocarbonylate transporter 4 positivity was associated with shorter overall survival compared with papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negativity for each marker. Disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with poorly differentiated carcinoma were shown to be significantly decreased when glucose transporter 1 and tumoral monocarbonylate transporter 4 are expressed. We demonstrated that the expression levels of glycolysis-related proteins differ between thyroid cancer subtypes and are correlated with poorer prognosis, depending on the subtype.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (1420080). In addition, it was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2015R1A1A1A05001209).
© 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research