Biomaterials with graded functionality have various applications in cell and tissue engineering. In this study, by controlling oxidative polymerization of dopamine, we demonstrated universal techniques for generating chemical gradients on various materials with adaptability for secondary molecule immobilization. Diffusion-controlled oxygen supply was successfully exploited for coating of polydopamine (PD) in a gradient manner on different materials, regardless of their surface chemistry, which resulted in gradient in hydrophilicity and surface roughness. The PD gradient controlled graded adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the PD gradient on these surfaces served as a template to allow for graded immobilization of different secondary biomolecules such as cell adhesive arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides and siRNA lipidoid nanoparticles (sLNP) complex, for site-specific adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells, and silencing of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression on GFP-HeLa cells, respectively. In addition, the same approach was adapted for generation of nanofibers with surface in graded biomineralization under simulated body fluid (SBF). Collectively, oxygen-dependent generation of PD gradient on biomaterial substrates can serve as a simple and versatile platform that can be used for various applications realizing in vivo tissue regeneration and in vitro high-throughput screening of biomaterials.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) ( NRF-2016R1A2B3009936 ). Appendix A
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry