Graphene-assisted spontaneous relaxation towards dislocation-free heteroepitaxy

Sang Hoon Bae, Kuangye Lu, Yimo Han, Sungkyu Kim, Kuan Qiao, Chanyeol Choi, Yifan Nie, Hyunseok Kim, Hyun S. Kum, Peng Chen, Wei Kong, Beom Seok Kang, Chansoo Kim, Jaeyong Lee, Yongmin Baek, Jaewoo Shim, Jinhee Park, Minho Joo, David A. Muller, Kyusang LeeJeehwan Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Although conventional homoepitaxy forms high-quality epitaxial layers1–5, the limited set of material systems for commercially available wafers restricts the range of materials that can be grown homoepitaxially. At the same time, conventional heteroepitaxy of lattice-mismatched systems produces dislocations above a critical strain energy to release the accumulated strain energy as the film thickness increases. The formation of dislocations, which severely degrade electronic/photonic device performances6–8, is fundamentally unavoidable in highly lattice-mismatched epitaxy9–11. Here, we introduce a unique mechanism of relaxing misfit strain in heteroepitaxial films that can enable effective lattice engineering. We have observed that heteroepitaxy on graphene-coated substrates allows for spontaneous relaxation of misfit strain owing to the slippery graphene surface while achieving single-crystalline films by reading the atomic potential from the substrate. This spontaneous relaxation technique could transform the monolithic integration of largely lattice-mismatched systems by covering a wide range of the misfit spectrum to enhance and broaden the functionality of semiconductor devices for advanced electronics and photonics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-276
Number of pages5
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Young Faculty Award (award no. 029584-00001), the Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (award no. DE-EE0008558), the Air Force Research Laboratory (award no. FA9453-18-2-0017), ROHM Co., and LG electronics. Y.H. and D.M. were supported by the National Science Foundation Division of Material Research (award no. 1719875). We are grateful for general support from J.S. Lee (Head of the Materials and Devices Advanced Research Institute, LG Electronics).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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